The three main points that Sigmund Freud talks about are the Id, the Ego and the Super-ego
Id – Also called the “pleasure principle” is an individuals unconscious mind. It is essentially the part of his brain that reacts to the most primal of urges. It seeks after pleasure, and avoids what causes discomfort. Most of us do not directly use this part of our brain, and our other levels of thinking tend to override our Id. Babies, on the other hand, think almost exclusively with their Id. If they are uncomfortable, they cry, and expect others to instantly take care of their needs. One additional point to note is that Freud believed that the Id was the “great reservoir of libido” and is responsible for our sex drive
Ego – Also called the “reality principle” this was essentially the logical level of thinking. Essentially, the Ego is the Id plus reasonable thought. It is the way that our Id satisfies itself in the short term without bringing it long term grief. For example, if a baby is hungry, it cries because it is thinking only with its Id. It doesn’t care what the situations around it are, it only wants its primal urge of hunger to be satisfied. An older individual, on the other hand, will take in to account other factors when it is hungry. In an extreme example, if you are hiding from animals that want to kill you, hunger is not the Ego’s main concern. A ego thinking individual will not immediately try and satisfy their hunger. But will first get themselves out of danger before taking care of their need for food. This is where most conscious thought takes place.
Super-ego – This is essentially the Ego plus morals and education. It is crafted by our parents, educators, friends and all others who influence our thinking. According to Wikipedia, “The Super-ego works in contradiction to the id. The Super-ego strives to act in a socially appropriate manner, whereas the id just wants instant self-gratification. The Super-ego controls our sense of right and wrong and guilt. It helps us fit into society by getting us to act in socially acceptable ways.The Super-ego’s demands oppose the id’s, so the ego has a hard time in reconciling the two”
Outside of all of the sexual aspects of Freud’s theories, those are three of his main points explained briefly.